- J&S SAFE GUARD
ACCEL DFI * PDF Format
HOLLEY COMMANDER 950 ECU
OTHER ENGINE MANAGEMENT
REDLINE * Possible Upgrade for EFI or a Carb to EFI conversion start
point. Many options to choose from.
PSI = Pounds Per Square Inch * Also referred to as "Boost" ///
12psi = 12lbs /// 1 BAR = 14.503773773 PSI
FMIC = Front Mount Intercooler * Cools air that was compressed by the
turbo, usually located in front bumper.
IC = Intercooler ( or ) Internal combustion *Context dependent
FI = Forced Induction * Term used to describe Turbocharging,
Supercharging, and Nitrous Injection.
Charge Pipe * Pipe located after the turbo, carries compressed air
charge to pistons
BOV = Blow Off Valve * Vents excess Charge Pipe pressure
Wastegate * Vents excess manifold pressure to control level of boost
FMU = Fuel Management Unit * Adds more fuel via AFC readings
AFC = Air Fuel Controller
SAFC = Super Air Flow Computer * Modifies air-flow meter signal or
pressure signal in some vehicles.
TURBO RELATED LINKS
SYSTEMS * One Known Turbo Manifold From Them In Pics Above, Maybe Two.
* Turbo Supplier
G2 IC TURBO * Good Turbo Info
* Turbo Manifold Parts Supplier
TURBO CALCULATOR * Turbo Parts Supplier
Turbo Parts Supplier
TUNER TOYS * Turbo
DO IT YOURSELF LINKS
HOMEMADE TURBO *
How to make a homemade turbo setup
TURBO MANIFOLD #1 * How to make a turbo manifold
MANIFOLD #2 * How to make a turbo manifold
MANIFOLD #3 * How to make a turbo manifold
TURBO MANIFOLD #4 * How to make a turbo manifold
ALCOHOL / WATER INJECTION * How to make homemade Water / Alcohol
INTERCOOLER * How to make an Intercooler
WANNABE TURBO LINKS
Fake Turbo / Real
TURBOED A20A LINKS
TURBO DUAL WEBER
OTHER GOOD SITES
ENDYNE ENGINE DYNAMICS
AUTO SPEED * This
site is filled with articles and do-it-yourself turbo projects.
PGFI * Good resource for
learning about programming ECU's
BOOKS ON TURBOCHARGING
Supercharging, Turbocharging and Nitrous Oxide Performance
By: Earl Davis, Diane Davis
Maximum Boost: Designing, Testing, and Installing
By: Corky Bell
By: Hugh MacInnes
- JACKSON RACING (
B16A or B18C )
JACKSON RACING CONSUMER FEEDBACK
- THOMAS KNIGHT ESC (
ELECTRIC SUPERCHARGER ) * So far one of the best electric supercharger
designs, worth it? You decide.
SUPERCHARGER E-RAM * Buy at your own pleasure, but please try to do your
research before you spend money on this.
- Nitrous Express
This should answer some of your questions regarding turbocharging your car
and would save people especially newbies asking the same old turbo questions
again & again.
Normally aspirated engines are not happy with the heat and pressure of
turbocharging. You need to lower the compression to a level manageable by
the engine and ignition control you are using. Generally 7.5:1 to 8.0:1 will
do what you want on today's terrible pump gas.
Pistons and Rings
Always use Forged Pistons that are properly designed for the engine you are
building. We use JE Pistons and Total-Seal Rings in all our engines. If you
cannot afford the forged pistons and you are building an engine that has a
factory Turbocharged equivalent then use the factory Turbo pistons. They are
never all that great for serious duty use but they are a good affordable
alternative to normally aspirated high compression pistons. We use
Total-Seal rings because they have proven to keep all the power in the
cylinders and minimize blow by under hard boost conditions.
Generally the block is fine for streetable boost levels. Very high boost
pressures or race applications are a different story. If a steel shim gasket
is available for your particular application, use it. They are expensive but
well worth the money.
Cylinder Head and Porting
Good quality valve jobs and Stainless Steel valves. If Stainless Steel
valves are not available or not in your budget at least get the stock ones
high heat coated. This is generally inexpensive and will extend the life of
the valve considerably. Porting varies with the head and engine. Generally
for most street applications a nice clean up port with most of the attention
being paid to the bowl area around the head of the valve and good match
porting of the manifold and head surfaces. We try to do a high polish on the
exhaust port to promote exhaust flow and minimize buildup and a swirl finish
on the intake for better fuel atomization.
Ignition Timing Control
This is the key to Turbo cars running on pump gas. You cannot use a normally
aspirated ignition distributor or engine control for a Turbo application.
You will detonate and hurt even the best of pistons and rings. Most factory
Turbo cars have excellent ignition systems with very conservative timing
curves that are great for higher boost applications. If you are doing a
normally aspirated to Turbo conversion you need to either incorporate the
ignition into your fuel injection or use a timing control such as an MSD or
JACOBS to insure you have proper boost retard for the level of boost you are
Turbocharging can be done with a carb but to make it easier, it should be
Fuel Injected first. Carbs will have drivability and heat problems not to
mention float and seal failures ( Just ask someone that owns a Maserati
Biturbo ). Programmable management is really the answer to a simple and
effective installation on a normally aspirated car. Retrofitting a factory
F.I. system into a normally aspirated car or into a car with a different
style of management is not impossible but it is very complicated, so be sure
and have a very good working knowledge of the cars electrical system before
undertaking such a task. We recommend an on-board air fuel ratio monitor in
all applications to make sure you do not lean out the engine under boost and
put big holes in things. We use the HALMETER AF/30. It is almost always
necessary to install a larger volume high-pressure fuel pump and some form
of Boost Referenced Rising Rate Fuel Pressure Regulator to insure proper
fuel delivery under boost.
CARB to TURBO EFI
Ok if you want a turbo, you should do a carb to efi swap/conversion
The next step after you convert to EFI there's a shitload of things you need
firstly the condition of your engine. How many km's has it done? Is it
blowing smoke? How much boost does the stock pistons, rods handle? - To
answer that, generally the stock engine would be safe around 5-6psi at the
most, I wouldn't push it anymore. And if it's a really heavily used motor,
well...look to a rebuild with forged pistons, and all the other crap.
How much boost do you want to go? anything beyond 6+ look to rebuilding your
engine first, secondly look at upgrading the fuel delivery, injectors,
pumps, FPR, etc. The last thing you EVER want is running lean, you run lean
and BOOM! there goes a piston, or worse.
Your transmission, the Fiat transmissions from what I've gained are all
right for their stock purposes but aren't that strong. I have been through a
few 4spd/5spd manuals. So with these if you want to avoid that, perhaps
rebuilding it with stronger internals may be a way to go. I don't know how
the new ones are like, but a promising option is upgrading to the 5spd from
a higher powered engine (like the Punto 75/Uno turbo). I wouldn't want to turbo a
Selecta running the auto, quite frankly auto's are pretty crappy, and weak.
Plus 5spd manual is more fun...
Next, the turbo you want, best to go T2, I reckon the IHI RHB5 would be a
good option for those wanting to race. I've used a IHI RHF3 and a Garrett
GT1549s and overall the Garrett produces a higher boost peak while the IHI
has a faster spoolup.
Next a turbo manifold, since an aftermarket turbo kit was never developed
for the Fiat, you need a custom made manifold, and they can get pricey
depending on what you want. So get a few quotes.
Other things you need to look at, tricking the stock ECU as it doesn't like
boost that can be done through by generally bleeding boost pressure off the
MAP sensor through the use of check valves. But an option with more
tunability is definitely an aftermarket computer, like a Haltech, Microtech,
wolf3d, etc. Do some research, I used Megasquirt only because I had no stock
ecu, otherwise I would simply rechip.
And definitely look at trying to do a lot of the work yourself, you'll save
plenty of cash.
Things like engine and turbo rebuilds, etc you shouldn't touch, not unless
you REALLY know what your doing, and have all the right tools. Otherwise,
leave it to someone who knows what they're doing, coz if you fuck up!
So yeah...that's it.
I probably missed a few things, but if anything else, just ask the people on
the forums or contact some turbo experts.
A turbo is 2 turbines connected by a shaft, on in the exhaust stream,
the other in the intake. Exhaust gasses going through the exhaust
turbine cause it to spin, because both turbines are connected the intake
side spins too forcing air into the intake. A header brings multiple
pipes together into one pipe.
SUPERCHARGING VS TURBOCHARGING
Is having a supercharger work all the time really a good thing?
Superchargers take power from the crank to turn them, which would
otherwise be sent to the wheels.
Turbos use the energy of the exhaust gas to turn them, which would
otherwise be sent out the tail pipe and not used.
Each has their own advantages and disadvantages. For moving larger
volumes of air superchargers are better.
The bigger a turbo is the longer it takes to spool up, superchargers
don't have that problem.
A supercharger requires more boost to make the same amount of power as a
turbo though because turbos don't drain power from the engine to turn.
AUTO VS MANUAL
It's actually better to have an auto box behind a turbo motor. Aside
from the issues of the trans being able to withstand the torque the
motor is putting out, the auto trans keeps the motor under load
when it shifts, which keeps the turbo spooled up between shifts.
The turbo won't be spooled up at normal freeway driving. Exhaust gas
volume and velocity are what spools up the turbo. Unless you drive down
the freeway with the pedal to the floor the engine isn't going to have
enough load on it to bring to turbo up to anywhere near full boost. As
long as the turbo is properly sized to your motor then it will only take
a fraction of a second to spool up anyway.
TURBOCHARGING A CARBURETOR
Probably the best way to turbo a carb is via a Holley 4
barrel with vacuum secondaries. Most important is to run a draw-through
setup in which air flows through the carb prior to the turbo. This gets
rid of pressurizing the carb. When boost comes on you need more fuel to
keep from a lean condition. This is where the vacuum secondaries come
in. The diaphragm that controls the secondaries operates on the presence
of vacuum, but if you disassemble the diaphragm and move the spring to
the other side of the rubber, you can run straight manifold pressure to
the diaphragm and when boost comes on, it will open the secondaries and
utilize the secondary fuel system, giving fuel enrichment and a closer
to Stoich mixture. two things you need are an air/fuel gauge and
different rate spring to dial out your boost/secondary opening crossover
In the case of a 2BBL you would either have to jet extremely fat at idle
and low RPMs to make up for the much denser charge of air when the snail
is boosting', or jet it so that it doesn't instantly foul plugs (leaner)
and risk detonation and eventually a burnt piston. There has to be
enrichment at boost. Supercharger is not a bad idea (I through this one
around), and because it builds boost so low in the rpm curve, jetting
can be set accordingly (no "boost/no boost situation)
TURBOCHARGING A CARBURETOR
Well if you must know here is Someone's crazy plan to
turbo a carb...
Well not exactly knowing the size turbo I'm using I decided to have it
as close to the carb manifold as possible.
Why did I do this?
Well the longer the air fuel charge has to travel the more heat it picks
up and also the more chances for the fuel to separate form the air.
Turbo Manifold / Exhaust Routing
Long header tubes will be needed... small enough to keep the velocity
high but large enough to account for the need for exhaust flow.
One thing that must be done is protection of all parts in the area from
heat. So lots of heat shielding to the brake lines and trans and coolant
lines is required.
Problem is while protecting things from heat you're also trapping in
heat. So you'll need a way to vent heat from the area between the
shielding and the body of the car... a few holes drilled into the
firewall that tap into the drain well below the windshield should
provide incoming cold air.
Also wrapping the header / turbo in key areas only to avoid warping the
header tubes but protect the distributor and ignition parts... is a good
idea, fully wrapping could be bad or good, heat kills the turbo but loss
of heat kills the exhaust velocity.
The downpipe for the turbo will need to be wrapped depending on where it
routes... I was thinking there is a space that you usually reach thru
when changing the oil filter, so with an oil relocation kit you can use
that hole to run the downpipe, you can see the downpipe routed this way
in the pic below.
For the carb I was thinking a single 4bbl holley and have it bolt to the
turbo with a 45 or 90 degree elbow that feeds the carb mix to the turbo...
but add a serious heat spacer to protect the carbs fuel source from
Think this is a good plan?
You can keep A/C that's for sure...
Other bits will include:
Possible advance diaphragm modification to be boost referenced instead
of vacuum referenced... this idea where someone was modifying the vacuum
secondary to be a boost secondary.
This isn't the final Turbo orientation... but it gives you and Idea of
what I was thinking of.
Here is a SU carb on a Draw-Thru Setup, I like the way the manifold and
turbo are situated with the turbo outlet facing upwards, I never figured
the fuel would flow well upwards... I wanted my air/fuel charge to exit
the turbo with the outlet facing down. Also water was injected in front
of the carb instead of port injection.
Here is a Draw-Thru Setup, it uses a 4bbl 390 cfm double pumper on a
RotoMaster T04B mounted on a Datsun 510 equipped with a
Mazda 13B rotary
Here is a list of some problems and links to
DRAW THRU CARB
- Extreme vacuum condition if the turbo is at boost and throttle is
closed could suck the oil out of the turbo bearings.
use a turbo off a diesel engine in a draw-thru setup because it lack the
seals and will leak)
- If oil gets into the air / fuel mix, it lowers your octane
immediately, and pinging will start at lower boost pressures.
-FIX- Need turbo with a positive (Carbon) seal on the compressor side of
-FIX- Run a oil cooler before the oil inlet into the turbo. This will
cool the oil down and help it from being sucked through the seals or
blown through the exhaust side (cooler oil is thicker). Also makes the
turbo run cooler and last longer.
- Restricting the intake to the turbo will lose
- Air-Fuel mixture must pass through the turbo
- Fuel must stay suspended in the intake charge
- Compressor turbine will throw the fuel against the turbo shell,
causing a lean-out condition, thus turbo lag.
- Fuel is denser than air and tends to separate in the turbo and puddle
- Turbo less efficient because it has to pump heavier mixture
When carb causes a pressure drop and the turbo tries to increase the
pressure there is a loss in efficiency, which translates into a hotter
mixture in the engine which limits the boost you can run and your power.
-FIX- Water / Alcohol Port Injection
-FIX- Avoid Extra Intake bends
- Heat needed to keep the carb from Icing
Air Charge Cooling
- Draw thru Intercooling, Not possible since intercoolers are dry flow
- Water / Alcohol Injection
- Oil coolers with fan
B&M Oil Cooler
- Oil coolers with fan
B&M Oil Cooler
- 160 Degree Thermostat
- Water / Alcohol Port Injection
-- EGR, either air cooled or water cooled, introduced as a source of CO2
Distributor Diaphragm Modification
- Valve springs
- Higher stall speed torque converter
-- LEVEL 10 UPGRADE
BSFC= brake specific fuel consumption ( how much fuel an
engine requires for a given horsepower output. most naturally aspirated
engines have a BSFC of about 0.5lb per horsepower-hour. that means that
engine will consume 0.5lb of fuel per hour for each horsepower it makes.
Turbocharged engines typically have a BSFC of 0.6 or higher then they
are on boost. An injector's flow rating is based on continuous flow
conditions, but most max out at 80% duty cycle, which is the accepted
Flow= Horsepower x BSFC / # of Injectors x Duty Cycle
So, suppose you want to make 200hp with a naturally aspirated
Flow= 200x0.5/4x0.8 Flow= 31.25lb/hr
To convert to CC/MIN here is the formula
Flow (cc/min) = Flow (lb/hr) x 10.5
Here are a few questions you may have
1) Why is a stock ECM rechip kit for a turbo better than any standalone
kits? Like, is there any new things that u have in there?
Better, that's hard to say better. define better. It does lots of
drivability things that the standalones don't. Not to mention its about
1/3 the price. I doubt MOTEC devoted millions in research to build a
better box. get my point now. oh and parts are easy to find. almost any
part store in America stocks everything in the kit you'd ever need.
2) My goal is to have a fast STREET LEGAL
car. I Have to pass inspection with laws and I wanna know if your kit
will make it like that?
Well that's a good question. If you take the time to tweak the ECM
properly there no reason you can pass a tailpipe test. as for a visual
inspection you should keep the catalyst in place and they don't check
under your hood so you shouldn't have any troubles. IF nox2 emissions
are a concern let me know and ill help you work out the EGR parameters
in the ECM to get that working to.
3) About the Engines. As of now, I am
planning on using my stock block to boost it up to 200whp no more. So
that wont mess anything up right?
Ahh, I'm not going to guarantee you will not or will blow up your
engine. there are some many factors involved. ill tell you the truth.
you can, I have gotten 180whp out of these engines stock. but you might
not have my luck
4) How is the heat production of a T3/T4
turbo inside the engine bay? I am planning on Thermo wrapping the header
and the exhaust turbine of the turbo. Is it advised?
The manifold does a really good job keeping the heat inside of
itself. A t3/t4 is complete overkill on anything under 400hp.
5) What are the sensors that I need for the
turbo upgrade? as far as I know ECT, MAP, MAT, O2, TPS, exhaust gas
temp, and cylinder head temp. These are the ones I feel like are crucial
except for the cylinder head temp that I just wanna monitor?
Well there is an interesting thing to think about. The GM ECM has a
lot of built in temperature compensation, knock detection the list goes
on. and its built that way to protect the engine from knuckleheads like
us who have to have every last bit of the 50000hp we can squeeze out of
it. As for sensors GM 2 bar map sensor, knock, TPS ECT,IAT,02 and the
input from the ignition module cover it.
I need and how much does it cost to turbo?
This will give you a rough idea.
First off you will need these parts (In red are my
comments, this list was not created by me and is only an example)
Custom Manifold $400-$600 (The stock manifold can
be used if modified but will complicate the oil filter removal)
T-2 turbo Used/Rebuilt $250 (There are many turbo
options to choose, used turbos are much cheaper)
Custom Piping $250 (there is no way around this,
you can find cheap stainless pipe in surplus locations. PVC can be used
for boost up to 10PSI but will melt/distort at higher pressures)
Intercooler--Cheap route maybe $100 for a used fender well one.. The
right way approx $700 for a good one(New)(Used
ones can be had cheap from people upgrading. It is not necessary for low
boost but nice to have.)
Injectors 290cc peak and hold Used--$50-$75 (Only
EFI cars need this, to swap injectors the ECU needs reprogramming. Stock
injectors are good for low boost)
Fuel pump $175 (
Vortech FMU 1:1 rise/rate Used $75-$100 (Only
needed if not using an Adj. fuel pressure regulator)
Blow off valve $210 (Bosh has some cheap valves
that work well, reason people don't used them is because they're really
Manual boost controller Used $75 (Only needed to
increase boost beyond the wastegate preset)
exhaust 3" Downpipe $400 includes 3" flex and cat
(The stock exhaust is ok for low boost, for higher boost at least 2.25"
should be used)
Adj. fuel regulator $85 (only needed if not using
Boost Gauge $25-$75 (A must have for any turbo
Oil Pressure Gauge $25-$120 (A nice thing to have
but not necessary, low oil pressure=blown engine and turbo)
Turbo timer used $100 (not necessary if you let
the car idle a bit before shutting down)
Air Filter $50 (Any air filter can be used, no
filter is NOT an option)
Silicon connectors $75 (not needed if using PVC
for intake and charge piping)
Getting the oil return line welded for the oil pan $50
The oil return line $45 (Fuel hose can be used for
this as it can be had cheap)
Wastegate Used $150 (Not necessary if the turbo
has one built-in, otherwise an external one must be fitted)
Ignition Used $175-$225 (Not necessary until
around 1bar of boost)
This is the cheap route with all the parts you should have..
Then if you want to get into the motor, clutch, tranny, computer, better
fuel delivery, it gets real expensive...
so all and all look to spend approx. $3,000 which I find to be pretty
cheap, but the you have to draw in the labor if you donít look for the
parts yourself, or if you donít install them yourself... The main part
is, you have to be willing to do most of the work...(In
my experience for a Fiat this can be done for around 750 euros if you do
the fabrication and installation yourself)